American Society of Plastic Surgeons
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Combined Oral Contraceptives Don't Increase the Risk of Macromastia in Young Women

Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing both estrogen and progestin do not contribute to the development of enlarged breasts (macromastia) – nor do they increase the risk of breast regrowth in adolescents and young women following breast-reduction surgery, reports a study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

Rather, using COCs during adolescence may actually be associated with developing less severe breast enlargement (hypertrophy), according to the new research by ASPS Member Surgeon Brian I. Labow, MD, of Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School and colleagues.

Doctors 'encouraged to consider COCs' for young women with macromastia

Breast reduction surgery, or reduction mammaplasty, is an effective treatment to reduce pain and psychosocial problems in adolescents and women with macromastia. Combined oral contraceptives are the most widely used type of hormonal contraceptives (HCs). Beyond their contraceptive effects, COCs are prescribed to manage a wide range of conditions in adolescents, including acne, menstrual abnormalities, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome.

"Despite the positive benefits of COCs, many patients, parents and providers worry that their use may worsen breast hypertrophy in adolescents," Dr. Labow and coauthors write. They note, "[T]he internet is littered with anecdotal accounts and lay articles suggesting that COC use in adolescents and young women may result in breast growth." Although COCs can cause breast tenderness and swelling due to fluid retention, there is no high-quality evidence that they cause "true glandular hypertrophy" in young women.

What's the true impact of COCs on breast enlargement and symptoms in girls and young women? The study included 378 patients, aged 12 to 21 years, undergoing reduction mammaplasty at Boston Children's Hospital. Severity of macromastia was compared for patients who did and did not use COCs and other HCs, along with breast regrowth in the first year after reduction mammaplasty.

Findings were compared with those in a control group of 378 female patients of similar age. Average age was about 18 years in both groups. Patients with macromastia were more likely to be overweight or obese, consistent with the fact that increased body weight is a risk factor for macromastia.

Overall, patients with macromastia had lower use of HCs: about 38%, compared to 65% in the control group. However, among women using HCs, those with macromastia were more likely to be prescribed COCs: 83% versus 53%. Estrogen and progestin doses were similar between groups.

Among the patients with macromastia, using COCs did not seem to affect the severity of breast enlargement. Median (normalized to height and weight) amount of breast tissue removed during reduction mammaplasty was similar between groups – in fact, somewhat less in patients who used COCs, compared no HC use. Scores for pain and other symptoms of macromastia (such as irritation of the breast skin, difficulty exercising or problems finding clothes that fit) were also similar between groups.

At a median follow-up of about two years after reduction mammaplasty, there was no significant difference in the rate of breast regrowth between patients who did and did not use COCs. Overall, about 5% of patients had postoperative breast regrowth. About half of cases were due to regrowth of the breast gland, rather than associated with weight gain. There was also no increased risk of breast regrowth for women who used COCs after reduction mammaplasty.

The findings help to debunk "pervasive anecdotal claims" that COCs during adolescence may increase the risk of macromastia, Dr. Labow and colleagues believe. They conclude: "Although additional research is needed, providers are encouraged to consider COCs when prescribing HCs for their patients with macromastia when indicated and appropriate."

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® is published by Wolters Kluwer.

Click here to read "The Impact of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Adolescents with Macromastia"

Article: "The Impact of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Adolescents with Macromastia" (doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000009513)

About Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

For over 75 years, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® has been the one consistently excellent reference for every specialist who uses plastic surgery techniques or works in conjunction with a plastic surgeon. The official journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® brings subscribers up-to-the-minute reports on the latest techniques and follow-up for all areas of plastic and reconstructive surgery, including breast reconstruction, experimental studies, maxillofacial reconstruction, hand and microsurgery, burn repair and cosmetic surgery, as well as news on medico-legal issues.

About ASPS

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is the largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons in the world. Representing more than 11,000 physician members worldwide, the society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. ASPS comprises more than 92 percent of all board-certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Founded in 1931, the society represents physicians certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

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