Botulinum Neurotoxin in Plastic Surgery—What's the Evidence for Effectiveness?
Botox and other botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) products are widely known for their use in treating facial wrinkles—but they can also be used to treat a wide range of non-cosmetic problems. Eight conditions with good evidence of effective treatment with BoNT are identified in a special review in the August issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
The international review analyzed the research evidence on plastic surgery procedures using BoNT. "The use of botulinum neurotoxins has revolutionized the treatment of several different problems seen in the plastic surgeon's office, from facial wrinkles to painful conditions with limited treatment options," comments lead author Marie E. Noland, MD, of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Her coauthors were Donald H. Lalonde, MD, of Dalhousie University in Saint John, New Brunswick; G. Jackie Yee, MD, of Baker Plastic Surgery, Miami; and Rod J. Rohrich, MD, of University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
Evidence and Experience Show Benefits of BoNT
A purified protein derived from bacteria, BoNT acts as a "neuromodulator"—it interferes with communication between nerves and muscles, causing local paralysis in the areas where it's injected. Two types of BoNT are available: BoNT-A (with brand names including Botox and Dysport) and BoNT-B (Myobloc).
The review identifies eight conditions treated by plastic surgeons with high-quality evidence of good responses to BoNT. The evidence is strongest for minimally invasive treatment of facial wrinkles (rhytides). The FDA has approved BoNT-A for treatment of forehead lines or wrinkles, while Botox specifically is approved for treatment of "crow's feet" at the corner of the eyes.
Studies support the use of BoNT for other types of facial aging problems as well. Cosmetic injection of BoNT-A is by far the most common plastic surgery procedure, with more than 6.5 million procedures performed in 2015, according to ASPS statistics.
Botulinum neurotoxin is also effective for some types of facial movement disorders (dystonias)—for example, tics caused by benign essential blepharopasm. It can also be used to treat issues related to facial nerve palsy and abnormal facial nerve regeneration, which can cause problems such as abnormal tears or sweating.
Two studies have reported that Botox can reduce hand tremors in patients with essential tremor, although hand function may not improve. Both BoNT-A and BoNT-B show evidence of effectiveness in patients with chronic, excessive sweating, especially of the hands (palmar hyperhidrosis).
Botulinum neurotoxin is a safe and effective treatment for upper limb spasticity of the arm and hand in adults. It also shows promise for treatment of muscle spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.
Neuromodulator therapy with BoNT has emerged as a useful new treatment for migraine headaches. This benefit was discovered coincidentally when patients undergoing cosmetic BoNT injection for forehead wrinkles reported decreased migraines. Based on three large studies, Botox has been approved for treatment of chronic migraine headaches.
More recently, studies have supported BoNT for treatment of neuropathic (nerve-related) pain—a common problem with few effective treatments. Injection is effective for the treatment of some important causes of neuropathic pain, including diabetes and surgical nerve damage.
The review includes figures and online videos illustrating proper BoNT injection technique for plastic surgeons. In a featured video on the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery website, Editor-in-Chief Dr. Rohrich comments: "Neuromodulators are safe, but they must be done appropriately—in the right dose, in the right area, in the right way."
Click here to read "Current Uses of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Plastic Surgery."
Article: "Current Uses of Botulinum Neurotoxins in Plastic Surgery" (doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002480)
About Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
For more than 70 years, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® has been the one consistently excellent reference for every specialist who uses plastic surgery techniques or works in conjunction with a plastic surgeon. The official journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery® brings subscribers up-to-the-minute reports on the latest techniques and follow-up for all areas of plastic and reconstructive surgery, including breast reconstruction, experimental studies, maxillofacial reconstruction, hand and microsurgery, burn repair, and cosmetic surgery, as well as news on medico-legal issues.
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is the world's largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons. Representing more than 8,000 Member Surgeons, the Society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. ASPS comprises more than 93 percent of all board-certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Founded in 1931, the Society represents physicians certified by The American Board of Plastic Surgery or The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. ASPS advances quality care to plastic surgery patients by encouraging high standards of training, ethics, physician practice and research in plastic surgery.
About Wolters Kluwer
Wolters Kluwer is a global leader in professional information services. Professionals in the areas of legal, business, tax, accounting, finance, audit, risk, compliance and healthcare rely on Wolters Kluwer's market leading information-enabled tools and software solutions to manage their business efficiently, deliver results to their clients, and succeed in an ever more dynamic world.
Wolters Kluwer reported 2015 annual revenues of €4.2 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, and employs over 19,000 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands. Wolters Kluwer shares are listed on Euronext Amsterdam (WKL) and are included in the AEX and Euronext 100 indices. Wolters Kluwer has a sponsored Level 1 American Depositary Receipt program. The ADRs are traded on the over-the-counter market in the U.S. (WTKWY).
Wolters Kluwer Health is a leading global provider of information and point of care solutions for the healthcare industry. For more information about our products and organization, visit www.wolterskluwer.com, follow @WKHealth or @Wolters_Kluwer on Twitter, like us on Facebook, follow us on LinkedIn, or follow WoltersKluwerComms on YouTube.